Diabetes care

3 Type of Diabetes: A Comprehensive Guide

18 feb 2022

Diabetes is a chronic disease that manifests as high blood sugar levels. It can be caused by various factors, such as genetics, diet, or lifestyle. If you have diabetes, you have to monitor your blood sugar levels and see your doctor regularly. A routine health check-up can also help detect diabetes early.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are three main types of diabetes – type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes.

Three Types of Diabetes are:

  1. Type 1 Diabetes:

Type 1 diabetes occurs when the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin to properly control blood sugar. The pancreatic Beta cells that produce the hormone insulin are attacked and destroyed by the body's own immune system.

  1. Type 2 Diabetes:

Type 2 Non-insulin dependent diabetes is a disorder that is characterised by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin. When the pancreas does not make enough insulin, cells of the body become resistant to insulin.

  1. Gestational Diabetes:

Gestational diabetes, finally, is a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy.

Brief of 3 Types of Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes:

According to a study by Graham D. Ogle, India and the United States of America had the largest number of cases of Type 1 Diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, which means that the body’s own immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.

Without these cells, the body has difficulty producing insulin and regulating blood sugar levels. As a result, the individual needs to take regular insulin injections to manage their diabetes. This type of diabetes usually develops in childhood or adolescence, but it can also appear in adulthood or later in life.

While it is unclear what causes the autoimmune response in type 1 diabetes, some studies suggest that it may be triggered by certain viruses or environmental factors. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes include frequent urination, excessive thirst, weight loss, fatigue and poor wound healing.

Type 2 Diabetes:

Type 2 diabetes is a result of insulin resistance, where the body’s cells are unable to use insulin properly. This causes glucose to build up in the bloodstream, leading to higher than normal blood sugar levels.

This type of diabetes is much more common than type 1, and can develop at any age. It is particularly common in adults over the age of 45. Individuals at higher risk for type 2 diabetes include those who are overweight, have a family history of diabetes, are of African or South Asian ancestry, or have a sedentary lifestyle.

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes can be mild in some cases, but can also include frequent urination, excessive thirst, unexplained weight loss, fatigue and slow wound healing then you must check your diabetes level through blood test like FBS, PPBS, HbA1c, and RBS.

Gestational Diabetes:

Gestational Diabetes occur during pregnancy. It usually occurs in the second or third trimester and resolves after the baby is born. Women who are overweight or have a family history of diabetes are at higher risk of developing gestational diabetes.

This kind of diabetes can affect both the Baby and mother. It can increase the mother’s risk of developing high blood pressure and preeclampsia, which can impact the baby’s development.

Moreover, babies born to mothers with gestational diabetes may have an increased risk of being born early or at a high weight. Signs and symptoms of gestational diabetes include excessive thirst, frequent urination and fatigue.

Conclusion:

Type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes are the three different forms of diabetes. Although the symptoms of each type are similar, the cause and treatment vary. The pancreatic Beta cells that produce the hormone insulin are attacked and destroyed by the body's own immune system. Type 2 diabetes is a result of insulin resistance and most common in adults after the age of 45.

Finally, gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy. Individuals with diabetes should monitor their blood sugar levels, see their doctor regularly and make dietary and lifestyle changes.

Furthermore, pregnant women should also speak to their doctor to ensure they understand the risks associated with gestational diabetes.

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